FAQ - Inundatii
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Standard questions and answers

Here you will find the most frequent questions. If the answer to your question is not among them, please contact us via the form at the bottom of the page.

Floods and flood risk management

Are there different types of floods?

Yes. Floods are different depending on their trigger.

Floods can occur when the increase in levels of water courses causes overflowing. These are called fluvial floods (or floods caused by river overflows) and can be caused by sudden snowmelt or heavy rains.

Torrential rains can cause the so called „flash floods”. They are characterized by large amounts of rainfall recorded within a short period of time and across a limited area. The type of phenomena that can occur is represented by significant runoffs from slopes, torrents, streams, flash floods on small rivers, with severe local effects, substantial increase in discharge and defense levels.

When water amounts oversaturating the soil can no longer be absorbed, the water levels remain longer on the soil surface and cause floods through the phenomenon of water logging and because of the insufficient water drain/ drainage systems.

In towns, where the soil has been covered by constructions and concrete, heavy rains may cause the so called pluvial urban floods. This occurs because the rainwater exceeds at that very time the capacity of sewage systems and the excessive water cannot be absorbed by the soil.

Last but not least, there are floods caused by rising of seawater levels, in coastal areas, which occur especially during storms and result in the flooding of the coastal areas during storms/ storm surges.

Accidental floods occur when accidents happen. However, along the years, many hydrotechnical works and facilities have been put in place for flood protection.

What is a flash flood?

A flash flood can occur when torrential rainwater descents at high speeds on slopes, such as hill sides or mountain slopes. These floods are very dangerous as they occur suddenly, at high velocities, carrying with them wooden debris.

I live in a city/town. Why is my street flooding?

Pluvial floods occur when an urban pluvial water drainage (sewage) system is overwhelmed and water flows out into the streets and other surroundings. This type of flood occurs gradually or more suddenly during torrential rains. The level of water is typically low, usually much under 1 meter deep. They do not pose a risk to the population, yet they can cause significant economic damage.

Who manages floods in Romania?

The authorities in charge with the flood management in Romania are the Ministry of Environment, Waters and Forests, the “Romanian Waters” National Administration and its subordinated structures at the level of 11 Water Basins and the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management.

What is a river basin?

A river basin is the total land area from which a main water course and its tributaries takes its water. Romania has an area of 238,397 sqm (around 6 % of the EU area, ranking nine).

From the total country area, inside the Danube basin, there are 232,193 sqm (representing 97.4% of the country total area); thus, according to the aforementioned values, Romania has 29% of the area and 21.7% of the population in the Danube basin. The Danube river basin collects waters from the territories of 19 countries across continental Europe, having an area of 801,463 sqm (according to ICPDR), thus being considered the most international water basin in the world. Around one third of the water basin area and one third of the river length are on the Romanian territory.

The Romanian surveyed water network is 78,905 km long and is evenly distributed at the level of its related 11 River Basins, each being managed by one river basin unit, called the River Basin Administration.


How can floods be managed?

There are many types of activities the flood risk management authorities can perform in order to prevent, manage, respond, adapt to or mitigate flood effects. These activities can range from structural measures, ”grey” infrastructure measures, such as building dikes and dams, to non-structural, ”green” measures, nature-based solutions, such as creating controlled floodplains, wetlands restoration, as well as precise hydrological modelling and legislative measures. All such activities require extensive expertise, ranging from hydrology to engineering and ecology. Experts from the Romanian water authorities are continuously applying this expertise in the flood risk management process.

How can I avoid floods?

Floods are a natural phenomenon. There is no zero risk worldwide. However, there are certain measures that a citizen can take before, during and after the floods. First of all, you need to find out if you live in a flood risk area. If so, you have to find out what you need to do in case of floods (the color highlighted words will be linked to the guidelines).

Besides, it is important to know what to do after the floods occur. For more information, you can see the Survival Guide

What exactly is the flood risk?

The flood risk is a combination of the hazard (an event causing floods) and the magnitude of its effects (the damage caused).

What is flood risk management?

Flood risk management is the systematic and regular assessment of flood hazards and the risks they pose, also involving the development of possible measures and strategies to alleviate those risks, followed by the planning and implementation of the most relevant measures. This cycle is repeated after several years in order to reduce the risks even further or to tackle new emerging risks.

Floods and flood risk management

Implementation of the Floods Directive (FD)

What are the different steps of the FD implementation?

They are as follows:

  • The Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment in which significant historical events are identified and then the areas of potential significant risk are established (APSFR);
  • Development of Flood Hazard and Risk Maps for the identified APSFRs;
  • Development of Flood Risk Management Plans, including a Program of Measures to reduce the risk of flooding.
What is the purpose of those different steps?

Each step contributes to the systematic approach to reducing flood risks and to adopting effective, realistic and affordable measures.

Why to choose those steps?

Those steps are part of a standard cycle developed by the European Commission to standardize flood risk assessments and the mitigation of flood risk across the EU Member States.

When will they be implemented?

The 1st cycle for implementation of Floods Directive 2007/60/CE was concluded back in 2016. Every 6 years, the results of steps are reassessed, supplemented and updated. The 2nd Cycle of implementation is in progress with the stage of preliminary flood risk assessment (PFRA) completed in 2019, with the stage for developing Flood Hazard and Risk Maps in progress, to be completed after the public consultations at the end of 2022, and the implementation of measures will take place starting from 2023.

What is a flood hazard map?

A flood hazard map shows where events (such as fluvial, pluvial, floods caused by increased sea levels in coastal areas, caused by the logging and also by insufficient drain/drainage systems for waters and accidental floods) are most likely to occur according to different probability scenarios, in which location and to what depth and extent.

What is a flood risk map?

Based on the hazard map, the risk map shows which property, buildings, cultural heritage, housing, environment, and private assets are at risk of being affected by the floods.

What are the FRMP2?

The 2nd cycle Flood Risk Management Plans are strategic documents and the key tool for implementing Floods Directive 2007/60/EC. The main objective of these plans is to establish a framework for the flood risk assessment and management, the strategy related to measures and relevant measures at River Basin Administration level.

Plans under the 1st cycle for the implementation of Flood Directive 2007/60/CE are re-updated during the 2nd implementation cycle – FRMP.

What is the purpose of the FRMP2?

The purpose of FRMP2 is to reduce the negative consequences of floods for the human health, economic activity, the environment and cultural heritage, in certain areas with a potential significant flood risk, deemed as a priority.

What do the FRMP2 mean to me?

FRMP2 provide priority measures necessary for reducing the flood risk at the level of an area with a potential significant flood risk. Consequently, citizens are informed about planned measures to be taken in order to mitigate flood risks they are facing in Romania. This differs depending on the geographic position of your house. You can check it by accessing the Flood Hazard and Risk Maps.

Why are FRMP2 being developed? We already have FRMP1.

FRMP2 is the re-updated version of the Flood Risk Management Plans under the 1st cycle and consider the identification of new areas with a potential significant flood risk and of new risks occurred meanwhile (effects of climate change). Then, the 3rd cycle will start for the implementation of the Floods Directive 2007/60/CE, and FRMP2 will be updated to become FRMP3 and so on and so forth.

What are the programs of measures?

Programs of measures consist of carefully selected sets of measures that are feasible to take in order to reduce flood risks. Such structural measures include building or strengthening dikes and dams, floodplain restoration, excavation works to extend river gullies /river beds, but also non-structural measures, including planning and prevention of flood risks, as well as evaluation plans, strengthening the expertise of the staff within water authorities and building the institutional capacity or regulatory changes.

When will FRMP2 be ready?

FRMP2 will be completed by the end of 2022.

Why does this process take so long?

All the steps to follow are not taken lightly and require an extensive effort. Additional expertise is required to conduct the different activities that have to be subcontracted through public procurement procedures, which is also a legally and administratively lengthy process.

What happens when the plans are finished?

At that time, the planning cycle will be repeated since flood risk management is the systematic and regular assessment of flood hazards and the risks they pose, development of possible measures and strategies to alleviate those risks, followed by the planning and implementation of the most relevant measures. Besides, planned measures are to be implemented.

Do the FRMP2 apply to the entire Romanian territory?

FRMP2 are developed at Units of Management level (UoM). In Romania, these are the 11 River Basin Administrations and the Danube River. Physically, the UoMs cover the whole of Romania, but the Hazard and Risk Maps included in the plans will only focus on the areas identified as having a potential significant flood risk (APSFR).

Implementation of the Floods Directive (FD)

Organizations responsible for the implementation of the Floods Directive

Which organizations are involved in the FD implementation?

The central public authority in the water field is the Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests by the Department for Flood Risk Management and Dam Safety. The “Romanian Waters” National Administration (ANAR), with its head office in Bucharest, its 11 subordinated territorial River Basin Administrations and the National Institute for Hydrology and Water Management (INHGA), together with other institutions and authorities at central level (ministries), a series of national, county and local institutions, with specific responsibilities and tasks, have an important role in the flood risk management.

By means of a stakeholder engagement process, other authorities, organizations and companies, NGOs and individual citizens can bring their contribution to the FD implementation by expressing their opinions on draft plans and by suggesting relevant improvements.

How are these practically involved?

At national level, a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) has been set up, including representatives of different authorities, organizations and NGOs. This TAG is frequently consulted on overall and strategic issues during the implementation of steps 2 and 3 of the Floods Directive.

Apart from the TAG, there are also several Technical Working Groups in place. They consist of similar organizations and are consulted on different tangible and operational issues that are addressed during the documentation development process.

How can my organization get involved?

Your organization can get involved in different ways. If you feel your organization is possibly affected by the provisions of the FRMP2 or your organization can contribute to the planning process, please feel free to contact us.

When developing draft flood risk management measures at river basin level and the related strategy, the RBAs will organize meetings to be attended by relevant stakeholders. During such meetings, stakeholders can express their opinions and suggestions on draft measures and, later on, on draft strategies.

The draft FRMP2 will go through a 6-month public consultations, during which period anyone interested can share their insights on draft plans.

How can I, as an individual citizen, get involved?

Individual citizens will be informed of all relevant activities via an extended information campaign, including this website in particular. Citizens and especially vulnerable or marginalized communities can delegate representatives to attend such meetings, where the relevant measures will be tackled and selected. Finally, citizens can express their opinions, suggestions or objections during the public consultation period, which will be open for 6 months.

Organizations responsible for the implementation of the Floods Directive

Stakeholders’ engagement

Can I put forward my opinion on the contents of the FRMP2?

Yes. Depending on the organization you represent, you will be invited to deliver your input for one or more of the documentation development stages: the Flood Hazard and Risk Maps and/or the Flood Risk Management Plans and related programs of measures.

How can I put forward my opinion?

You can express your opinion during dedicated meetings, in writing or during the nationwide public consultation procedure.

When and where can I put forward my opinion?

Soon, one will make public the venues for public debates, their agendas and calendar of activities related to your involvement.

Will I be informed about upcoming possibilities to express my opinion?

Yes. A calendar of engagement activities will be soon made publicly available on this site and relevant stakeholders will also receive direct invitations.

How will my opinion / my organization’s opinion be handled? Is it of any relevance?

Any input, opinion or suggestion will be considered and, if well-argued and relevant, this will be taken into account upon completion of the FRMPs and of related programs of measures.

Stakeholders’ engagement

Public consultations

When can I formally react to the draft plans so my opinion is actually considered?

The answer to this question will be provided at a later stage during the planning process.

Will I be informed about the way my reaction is handled?

Yes. Upon completion of FRMP2, a report will be drafted explaining how all the input received during the public consultation procedure is considered and possibly integrated into the final version of FRMP2.

Can I object to the measures proposed?

Yes, you can object to measures. Whether your objection results in a change of measures or of strategy depends on the arguments and relevance of your very objection, if well-argued or legally substantiated.

When authorities decide on the final plans, will they explain and make public how they have considered my opinion?

Yes. Upon completion of FRMP2, a report will be made available explaining how all the input received during the formal consultancy procedure has been taken into account and possibly embedded into the final version of FRMP2. This report will be posted on the website: www.inundatii.ro.

Public consultations

Possible measures and strategies

Will the proposed measures protect us against all future floods?

No. There is no zero risk to floods, because floods are natural phenomenon, just like storms. The proposed measures will alleviate and reduce the flood risks according to the set objectives.

Are the measures the same at national level?

No. Because floods differ in probability, magnitude/extent, frequency of occurrence and location. Therefore, dedicated, especially designed measures are taken at different locations, especially in areas with the highest risk (APSFRs).

Possible measures and strategies

Disaster management

What is disaster management?

Disaster management, with regard to floods, is the containment of an event of flooding, including all the activities in order to minimize the damage caused by floods.

Do we still need disaster management after implementing the measures in FRMP2?

Yes. There is no zero risk to floods worldwide. To alleviate the negative consequences of floods, it will still be necessary to have plans in place and authorities prepared to be able to act accordingly.

What kinds of measures are part of the disaster management?

Measures included in the disaster management can be:

  • The evacuation of people away from a flooded or flood threatened area;
  • The containment of the flooding by putting temporary emergency barriers in place;
  • The rescue of people being stuck in flooded areas;
  • The provision of medical aid;
  • The provision of food and drinking water in case of a destroyed road and other infrastructure;
  • Others.
Disaster management