Dobrogea-Litoral Watershed Area
Dobrogea-Litoral Watershed Area is under the management of Dobrogea-Litoral River Basin Administration and includes the Danube and Litoral River Basins. Dobrogea-Litoral River Basin Administration manages an area of 18,164.56 sq km.
Relief of the river basin
The relief of Dobrogea Watershed Area is characterized by the following geomorphological forms: the Northern Dobrogea Massif and the Southern Dobrogea Plateau. Macinului Chain of Mountains, from Northern Dobrogea Massif, is the highest landform from the Northern Dobrogea Massif, reaching 467 m on Pricopan summit.
On the Southern Dobrogea sector, there is a significant morphological unit: Tortomanului Plateau, stretching on a thin strip of land of about 30 km, bordered to the West by the Danubian Corridor, and to the East by the Black Sea. Its crests range between 10 m and 200 m. Around 20.5% of the Danube Delta areal is below the average level of the Black Sea. The remaining areal of the delta includes areas with positive-value altitude between 0 and 1 m, in a ratio of 54.5% and respectively with altitudes between 1 and 2 m, on 18% of the areal. The average altitude of the Danube Delta relief is of about 0.52 m. The land differences of the Delta space reflect the features of water circulation. The Romanian Black Sea Coast covers an area of 244 km (between Musura Branch and Vama Veche), representing 6% of the total length of the Black Sea Shoreline, including 128 km of transitional seawater and 116 km of coastal water.
The Romanian shoreline has about 80% of low-altitude shorelines – beaches and around 20% high shores – bluffs, the Northern sector representing 68%, and the Southern one 32%.
Climate of the river basin
Across Dobrogea, there is an influence of the excessive continental, sub-Mediterranean and Black Sea climate, on a strip of the shoreline. In terms of air temperature, Dobrogea is under the influence of the continental feature typical of the temperate climate, it is conventionally delineated by the isotherm of 11ºC, showing the highest annual average temperatures country-wise. These can also be found only in the southern part of the Romanian Plain, as well as in the Southern part of Baragan, areas where thermal excessiveness features are emphasized by the high number of tropical days (with the maximum temperature exceeding 30ºC) and long draughty periods.
The lowest annual average temperatures (8-9ºC) are recorded in the Northern Dobrogea Plateau and in Macinului Mountains.
In terms of annual rainfalls, Eastern Dobrogea (the maritime shoreline, Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon Complex and the eastern half of the Danube Delta) may be considered the poorest region in precipitations in Romania (< 400 mm). At the same time, the excessiveness nuance of the temperate continental climate typical of Dobrogea is characterized by increased torrentiality. In this regard, it is necessary to remind the fact that in C.A. Rosetti pluviometric station, in 1924, on 30 August, 690.6 mm were recorded, representing the absolute maximum amount of precipitations in Romania. In the rest of Dobrogea, annual amounts of precipitations increase towards 450 mm, showing the influences of the marine climate.
The hydrographic network of Dobrogea – Litoral Watershed Area includes 16 permanent water courses. The total length of permanent water courses on the entire territory is of 542 km. The distribution by river basins is the following: 71% belong to Litoral Basin and 29% to Danube Basin. The distribution by areas shows that 90% of the total length of water courses belongs to Northern Dobrogea and 10% to Southern Dobrogea. The most important water courses of Dobrogea are: Casimcea, Taita, Slava, Telita and Hamangia, all belonging to Northern Dobrogea.
As regards the Romanian shoreline, its cumulated length is of 244 km and it stretches from the Musura Branch from Chilia Delta (on the borderline with Ukraine) and all the way to Vama Veche (the border with Bulgaria). The Black Sea Romanian coastal waters are represented by surface waters located between the shore and 1 marine mile away from the nearest point of the baseline, being situated between Chilia and Vama Veche. The Danube Delta watershed area includes: the main branches through which the Danube crosses the Delta and flows into the Black Sea (Chilia, Tulcea, Sulina and Sfantul Gheorghe).
The main coastline lakes which belong to the lagoon category (former marine bays delineated by sand ridges) are Siutghiol (1900 ha) and Tabacariei (98 ha), and from the category of fluvial-maritime limans (former mouths of rivers), the lakes: Tasaul (2300 ha), Corbu (500 ha), Techirghiol (1200 ha), Tatlageac (1500 ha), Mangalia (2500 ha) and Costinesti (7 ha). The depth of these lakes is variable, reaching up to 17 m (Siutghiol).
The total surface water resources at the level of the Danube River (Chiciu – Isaccea sector), the Danube Delta and Dobrogea Watershed Area reach about 404,136.4 mil. cubic meters/year, of which usable resources are of about 51,380.8 mil.m3/year.
In Dobrogea Watershed area, the underground resources are estimated at 2,090,818 mil. cubic meters, of which 372.27 mil. cubic meters come from groundwater sources and 1,718.548 mil. cubic meters from depth sources.
Description of existing flood protection works
Dobrogea-Litoral Watershed Area has a complex system of hydrotechnical works with a role in the quantitative management of water resources, including more diversions for transiting water amounts from one river to another. In Dobrogea Watershed Area, there have been 7 bank protection and reinforcement works on a total length of about 54 km and 18 locations where regularization works have been executed, on a total length of around 170 km.
The major works across the Dobrogea area (continental Dobrogea) are the following: regularization and embankment v. Taita – 25.5 km; Regularization and embankment v. Telita – 34.8 km; Regularization and embankment p. Ciucurova – 22 km; Regularization p. Slava – 35.0 km; Regularization p. Hamangia – 19.0 km.
There are 41 non-permanent lakes with a flood protection role, existing for more than 30-35 years, mostly silted and located behind earth dams of 4 -12 m height (the average height of these dams is of 7.5 meters).
Large amounts of rainfalls within a relatively short period of time (2 hours) led to the exceedance of flooding levels recorded in Cuza Voda and Pietreni gauge stations (341 cm, respectively 430 cm by reference to CI = 250 cm), on 19.07.2002, thus affecting the locality of Cuza Voda and Pietreni village from Deleni commune. On 28.08 2004, in Constanta county, there were heavy rainfalls with thunderstorm, when significant quantities of precipitations were recorded, exceeding, in certain areas, the known historical values (the multi-annual average value of precipitations for Constanta county is of 377 l/sqm, the most significant amount recorded in one day is of 111 l/sqm on 1 July 1992). Significant amounts of precipitations recorded within a relatively short period of time, in combination with slope runoffs and under-sized sewage networks, caused serious flooding affecting 14 localities, with significant damages, as well as one casualty.
By examining the effects of flooding from the period 2001 – 2005 in Dobrogea-Litoral Watershed Area, it is noted that the flash flood from the period 22-23.08.2005 is the most serious one. In Costinesti, there was a flash flood leading to households damaged in the former village of Schitu. There were material damages caused by the destruction of the railway embankment on a length of approximately 1.5 km (an embankment that actually blocked the flow on the torrential slope), of many access roads, houses and motels, terraces and restaurants. There were also casualties recorded. On this occasion, a large area of Costinesti Lake turned again into a bay by flooding the barrier beach and the beach area on a length of around 2 km.
During the period 7 – 9 May 1989, in the river basins of rivers Barcau, Crisul Repede and Crisul Negru, significant amounts of precipitations were recorded, overlapping with a period of waterlogged soil, which resulting in most of the rainfall cause the surface runoff. Thus, there were significant levels and discharges in the aforementioned river basin.
The flashfloods formed during the period December 1995 – January 1996 were caused by: warming and fast snowmelt especially in mountainous and hill areas, defrosted rivers, significant rainfalls on a frosted soil, unable to allow water infiltration and drainage on slopes towards riverbeds. Flashfloods occurred during two timespans, the first one was 23 – 25 December, and the second one – 26 – 27 December and lasted until the end of the month.
Contact Dobrogea-Litoral RBA
Address: Bd. Mircea cel Batran nr 127 Constanta.
Head office: 0241.673.036 ; 0241.672.089;
Dispatcher’s office: Phone: 0241.673.024; 0745.349.209