Crisuri Watershed Area - Inundatii
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Crisuri Watershed Area

Crisuri Watershed has an area of 14,860 km2, representing around 6.3% of the country territory. Crisuri Basin is situated to the Western part of Romania and is located between 47°06′ and 47°47′ latitude North and 20°04′ and 23°09′ longitude East.

Where is it located?

It borders on the basins: Somes to the North and North–East, Mures to the South and South–East, and to the West on Hungary. The total area of the watershed is of 25,537 km2, and occupies the territory of twos states: Romania and Hungary. The main rivers join one another two by two on the Hungarian territory, forming a single course converging with Tisa.

Relief of the river basin

The relief of Crisuri watershed area is made up of 3 geomorphological areas: mountains (in a ratio of 22.4%), hills (20.2%) and plains (48.4%), arranged in order from East to West and having altitudes between 1842 m (Curcubata Mare Summit in Bihor Mountains) and 85 m (in Crisul Alb Plain).

Climate of the river basin

In climate terms, Crisuri watershed area has a temperate continental climate, of Pannonian type, featuring an interference of influences such as Mediterranean, Baltic and continental.

For this area, we mention the following characteristics of climate factors:

  • average annual precipitations have values of up to 1600 mm in the alpine region, of 650 – 800 mm in the hilly area and of 550 – 600 mm in the plain area;
  • the average multiannual temperature varies between 4 0C in the alpine region (in Stana de Vale) and over 10 0C in the plain area (in Oradea, Salonta, Chisineu Cris);
  • the evapotranspiration is maximum during the warm season. The potential evaporation reaches below 600 mm in the hilly area and around the value of 650 mm in the plain area, and in the alpine region it reaches 450 mm.

Total water resources

Crisuri watershed area includes the waters of a surveyed hydrographic network totaling 365 surveyed water courses and 5785 km, representing 7.3% of the total length of the surveyed network in the country.

The main river in Crisuri watershed area is considered to be Crisul Alb due to its maximum length from its source. It converges on the Hungarian territory with Crisul Negru, forming Crisul Dublu. It collects a series of plain streams in Romania, on Crisul Negru – Crisul Repede interfluve, such as: Culiserul, Barmodul and Ghepesul. Also Crisul Repede flows downstream into Crisul Dublu, after receiving Barcau with Ier.

Crisuri Watershed area is made up, at its turn, of the following basins:

Crisul Alb River Basin

Crisul Alb begins on the Eastern slopes of Bihorului Mountains, the river having a length of 234 km on the Romanian territory and collecting 42 tributaries.

Crisul Negru River Basin

Crisul Negru begins on the Northern slope of Curcubata Summit, at the altitude of 1 460 m, near the springs of Ariesul Mic. The river is 164 km long on the Romanian territory and collects 16 tributaries from both sides.

Crisul Repede River Basin

Crisul Repede begins at an altitude of 710 m, near the locality of Izvorul Crisului, in a hilly area from the Northern end of Huedinului Depression. The river is 171 km long on the Romanian territory and collects 36 tributaries.

Barcau River Basin

Barcau has its sources in the limestone plateau beneath Ponor, near the village of Tusa. The river is 134 km long on the Romanian territory and collects 28 tributaries.

Ierul River Basin

Ierul / Eriul is 100 km on the Romanian territory, and the catchment area is of 1392 km2 and it collects 11 tributaries.

The hydrological networks structure includes 101 gauge stations.

In Crisuri watershed area there are 9 important reservoirs, with a complex use and two fresh water natural lakes totaling a volume of 1.95 mil. cubic meters and an area of 51 ha: Ghioroc Lake (48 ha – 1.92 mil. cubic meters) which is an excavation lake and Ponoare Lake (3 ha – 0.03 mil. cubic meters) which has a karstic nature.

The surface water resource of Crisuri watershed area, from inland rivers, is of 2937.4 mil.m3, and the underground water resource is of 788.4 mil.m3.

Description of existing flood protection works

Crisuri watershed area has a complex system of hydrotechnical works with a role in the quantitative management of water resources, including several feeding diversions of water volumes from one river to another.

For supplying water to certain uses (water supply, irrigation, fishery), as well as for collecting high waters from interfluves etc., 27 adductions and diversions were executed.

Existing flood protection works operational across the entire Crisuri watershed area consists in river regularizations, embankments, bank reinforcements, as well as permanent, non-permanent reservoirs or polders. Such works ensure the flood protection of a total area of approx. 264,000 ha, of around 59.000 households, of 157 industrial objectives, around 174 km of railways, around 1360 km of roads etc. Among the main localities benefiting from protection works, we mention: Marghita, Oradea, Alesd, Huedin, Vascău, Stei, Beius, Brad, Sebis, Ineu, Chisineu – Cris etc.

Flood records

In Crisuri watershed area, floods occur during all seasons of the year, but the most significant are those in winter time, spring and summer, depending on the moisture intake brought by air masses.

During the spring of 1970, there were serious floods, with significant water discharges being reports almost on all major rivers in Romania. The trigger of the floods from May – June 1970 was a regime of heavy, torrential rains. Besides, the entire period 1 January – 10 May was reach in precipitations, recording double quantities of water by reference to normal multiannual values, which caused the infiltration of no more than 20 – 25% of the rain, the remaining water turning into a runoff. The general feature of floods recorded was its singular nature (single-wave), with sudden increases and slower decreases. The value of damages recoded in Crisuri watershed area was of more than 390 million lei in 1970.

During the period 7 – 9 May 1989, in the river basins of Barcau, Crisul Repede and Crisul Negru, there were significant quantities of rainfalls, overlapping with a period when the soil was waterlogged, which caused most of the rainfalls to turn into surface runoff. Thus, there were significant levels and discharges in the aforementioned river basins.

Floods occurred during the period December 1995 – January 1996 were caused by: warming and sudden snowmelt, especially in the alpine and hilly areas, river defrosting, significant rainfalls given an existing frozen soil, unable to allow water infiltration and drainage on slopes towards riverbeds. Floods occurred during two periods, the first one was 23 – 25 December, and the second one – 26 – 27 December and they lasted until the end of the month.

Contact Crisuri RBA

Adress: str. Ion Bogdan nr. 35, Oradea

Phone: +40(259) 442 033; +40(259) 443 892

Fax. +40(259) 444 237; +40(259)442 064